2buyshoes.com

How to Find Wholesale Building Materials Architects Use?

by

Markus Skupeika

When should one hire an architect and what kind of costs will be incurred for the building materials?

To create plans for a home an architect could charge up to 10% of the price of the home. Having a good builder you will not be in a position to have to hire them.

To start a building project look below for a step by step process.

Get a loan

Then the land to build on.

Selection of a interior design team is the third part of the process.

YouTube Preview Image

Fourth is locate an architect to get together house building materials

and move the project forward.

Work together with an interior designer to get a customized floor plan together. This should be uniquely placed together for the amount of space needed for your project.

As soon as you have the floor plan you will have the ability to receive the architect blue prints. The blue prints can be placed as part of the quote to lean away from the sticker shock.

Prices will be different on differnet materials. Whether you need advice or research for materials look into finding wholesale building material companies

. Most companies are there to find the right prices and keep products moving to get you focused on getting the project done.

Their specialties are outside deck building materials

, overstock building materials, steel, drywall supplies and many other important aspects for architects and builders.

How about the costs and research for surplus building materials

?

Building materials are huge.. but having the right suppliers getting your materials moving is priceless. Wholesale building materials are capable of being attained that have great quality. Using suppliers that work with the players in the industry can help out the smaller companies as well as the larger ones. Wholesale building materials at good quality are the secret to getting the bottom line.

Pricing will depend on the builder and should not be extravagant. Most builders will do the work in their comfort area. For the building materials, this will be different on the individual. You have some that use cheap building materials and others that will get you the best. Where they get their building materials from is what will make the difference. If a product is affordable it does not represent a low quality product. The builder will have the right sources and player to use to get the right materials.

Profitable techniques used that are successful are the goal of master builders. They should keep up with the latest news and products available to help their clients. This will create a standout building to the rest. One who knows how to find discount building materials

that is the best quality and great price saving you money and making them a profit.

Building materials and supplies are important part of any building project. Research for overstock building suppliers and wholesale suppliers to get pricing and rates for your next prject.

Discover where the Major Players are getting ther

Wholesale Building Materials

from. Sell or Buy wholesale building materials online.

Article Source:

eArticlesOnline.com

}

Drew Estate Cigar History

Submitted by: Eliz Guide

Drew Estate Cigars were created from the very beginning by Jonathan Drew with the idea to develop cigars that were completely different from the traditional stick. Thus, his company has generated a reputation among a new group of cigar enthusiasts, which honors him as the one responsible for the rebirth of the cigar. Those intrigued by Drew Estate Cigars will delight in learning about the distinctive tobaccos and exclusive infusions brought together in perfect harmony in each cigar. Because these new age cigars are loaded with personality, their following has grown exponentially, which has resulted in Jonathan Drew landing a top spot among Nicaraguan cigar makers.

One of the keys to the success of Drew Estate Cigars is that a variety of cigars are offered at a reasonable price per stick. This allows an opportunity for the cigar smoking consumer to sample the cigars and determine which smokes are best suited for his taste. In addition, the expansion from making cigars with just unique tobaccos and infusions to premium cigar making has attracted an even broader audience, reaching almost anyone with a love for cigars.

At first glance, these smokes are unusual in every aspect, which is only to be expected by such a revolutionary maker. Perhaps the most distinctive characteristic that sets Drew Estate Cigars apart from the others is that Drew uses a shaggy foot. A shaggy foot is exactly what it sounds like in that the Nicaraguan filler leaves protrude out longer than the actual wrapper. Although the look is not as regal, it makes for happy smokers because it allows the flavors and aroma of the binder and filler tobaccos to remain separate from those of the wrapper.

YouTube Preview Image

After setting fire, it becomes quite evident that these cigars are ACID cigars. ACID cigars are a mixture of vital oils and premium long leaf Nicaraguan fillers, which are strategically introduced to create a heavenly aroma that is not likely to be mimicked. In addition, Drew cleverly infuses his cigars with palate-pleasing flavors to add to the already superb performance. The Java infusion is perhaps the most sought after infusion, which blends the aromas of cocoa and espresso beans with some of the best Nicaraguan tobaccos to produce a delicate flavor.

Likewise, if the smoker appreciates the Java infusion, the Java Latte will most likely be pleasing as well. Although it is the exact same infusion process as the Java infusion, this cigar is wrapped in an Ecuadorian Connecticut leaf, which rewards the palate with a creamy feel. Just like adding a drop of cream straight into a cup of freshly brewed coffee, the soul will be revived upon completion.

All in all, Drew Estate Cigars are some of the most original and intriguing cigars available on the market today. Whether a novice or trained aficionado, anyone interested in cigars must try one of these unique sticks. With that in mind, the consumer should be prepared to buy a few because once one has been lit, the palate will be demanding more.

About the Author: For more information on

Drew Estate Cigars

as well as other cigar lines like

Camacho cigars

or

Rocky Patel cigars

visit our online

cigar store

Source:

isnare.com

Permanent Link:

isnare.com/?aid=859478&ca=Food+and+Drinks

" href="http://www.2buyshoes.com/residents-and-business-owners-attend-private-meeting-on-buffalo-n-y-hotel-proposal/" rel="bookmark">
Residents and business owners attend “private” meeting on Buffalo, N.Y. hotel proposal

Tuesday, February 28, 2006

Buffalo, N.Y. Hotel Proposal Controversy
Recent Developments
  • “120 year-old documents threaten development on site of Buffalo, N.Y. hotel proposal” — Wikinews, November 21, 2006
  • “Proposal for Buffalo, N.Y. hotel reportedly dead: parcels for sale “by owner”” — Wikinews, November 16, 2006
  • “Contract to buy properties on site of Buffalo, N.Y. hotel proposal extended” — Wikinews, October 2, 2006
  • “Court date “as needed” for lawsuit against Buffalo, N.Y. hotel proposal” — Wikinews, August 14, 2006
  • “Preliminary hearing for lawsuit against Buffalo, N.Y. hotel proposal rescheduled” — Wikinews, July 26, 2006
  • “Elmwood Village Hotel proposal in Buffalo, N.Y. withdrawn” — Wikinews, July 13, 2006
  • “Preliminary hearing against Buffalo, N.Y. hotel proposal delayed” — Wikinews, June 2, 2006
Original Story
  • “Hotel development proposal could displace Buffalo, NY business owners” — Wikinews, February 17, 2006

Residents, business owners and developers attended a low profile, “private” neighborhood meeting about the Elmwood Village Hotel proposal and redesign in Buffalo, New York last night. At least 50 people from the Penhurst block, the Claremont block, the Granger block and various other locations attended. A representative from Forever Elmwood was also at the meeting. Joel Golombeck, City Councilman for the Elmwood area, was also among the attendees.

The Elmwood Village Hotel is a seven million dollar proposal by Savarino Construction Services Corp. The hotel would be built on the intersection of Elmwood and Forest Aves. in Buffalo. In order for the hotel to be built, the demolition of at least five currently occupied buildings will be required.

Golombeck found out about the proposal just three weeks ago when Sam Savarino of Savarino Construction Services Corp. called Golombeck.

Golombeck said that he was asked, by the City of Buffalo to “approve” the proposal “tomorrow”, (February 28, 2006). When asked to do so Golombeck replied, “That is just not possible. I did not realize how fast tracked this plan was. My first question to Savarino was, did you talk to the neighborhood?”

Golombeck also stated that he would not approve or deny the proposal until a reasonable amount of time was given to the community to make a judgment on the new design.

Golombeck also stated that the City of Buffalo wanted Savarino to obtain both 605 Forest and 607 Forest for the proposal, but, according to Golombeck, Savarino “does not want to do that.” In order for the two buildings to be included in the development, Savarino will have to apply for a C-2 zoning permit. It is unknown if an attempt will be made to obtain those properties or make the zoning changes.

Wendy Pierce of Forever Elmwood stated that she had found out about the proposal only “two weeks ago from today.” She also stated that the original design “felt too massive.” Pierce also stated that she wanted to “speak more with the block clubs and residents” around the area.

Ms. pierce also stated that “other options” for parking will be looked into “if possible.”

The new design will have less retail space and now has at lease three conference rooms. Parking has been increased to a total of fifty-five spaces, both underground and above.

Rocco Termini, a Buffalo developer also attended the meeting still stating that the hotel would “destroy Elmwood’s urban streetscape.” Mr. Termini has proposed a second development that would not include a hotel, but increase retail shops to at least seven.

The City of Buffalo Planning Board is still scheduled to meet at 8:00a.m Tuesday. The Common Council is still expected to meet at 2:00p.m. on the same day.

Joel Golombeck is expected to attend both meetings.

" href="http://www.2buyshoes.com/native-hawaiian-sovereignty-bill-to-be-debated-in-u-s-senate-in-june/" rel="bookmark">
Native Hawaiian sovereignty bill to be debated in U.S. Senate in June

Saturday, May 13, 2006

The U.S. Senate has scheduled debate and a vote in June on a bill that would allegedly initiate a process for Native Hawaiians to achieve the same level of self-governance and autonomy over their own affairs that many Native American tribes currently have. Critics of the bill characterize it as going much further than any existing tribal recognition, creating a governing entity based solely on race, without the same requirements as needed for Native American tribal recognition, such as having existed predominantly as a distinct community, having exercised political influence over its members as an autonomous entity, and have continuously been identified as a tribal entity since 1900.

Senator Daniel Akaka (D-Hawaii), the main proponent of bill S. 147 (the Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act) and a Native Hawaiian himself, had been giving daily speeches on the Senate floor since May 9 in support of the bill to raise awareness of it. His advocacy of the bill has led it to become known as the “Akaka Bill.” Opponents of the Akaka bill have made daily responses to the Senator’s speeches as well.

“I thank our majority leader, the senior senator from Tennessee, who is working to uphold his commitment to bring this bill to the Senate floor for a debate and roll call vote,” Akaka said after receiving the pledge from Majority Leader Bill Frist (R-Tenn.) on Friday. He also recognized his chief opponent, Senator Jon Kyl (R-Ariz.), who worked with Akaka “to uphold his promise to allow the bill to come to the floor for a debate and roll call vote.”

Frist is expected to file a cloture motion after the Senate returns from its May recess. A vote on the cloture motion would occur within 48 hours of filing.

Opponents of the bill, including Kyl, charge that the bill is a race-based privilege that the U.S. Constitution prohibits. Others, such as Sen. Lamar Alexander (R-Tenn.) imply that passage of the bill could have unintended consequences. In a speech on the Senate floor on Tuesday that preceded Akaka’s, Alexander likened the bill to recognizing Hispanic populations descended from pre-republican Texas or giving tribal status to the Amish or Hasidic Jews, the Honolulu Star-Bulletin reported.

Akaka believes that he has bipartisan support for his bill, with four Republican senators pledging support for it. At least six Republican senators would need to vote for the bill for it to pass, assuming that the bill receives solid support from Akaka’s fellow Democrats and the chamber’s one independent member who usually votes with the Democrats.

A recent report from the U.S. Civil Rights Commission recommended that the bill be rejected. [1](PDF)

The Commission recommends against passage of the Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2005 (S. 147) as reported out of committee on May 16, 2005, or any other legislation that would discriminate on the basis of race or national origin and further subdivide the American people into discrete subgroups accorded varying degrees of privilege.

Although the U.S. Civil Rights Commission redacted the findings section of their draft report before approving their final report, opponents of the Akaka bill have challenged the characterization of the findings section as being “historically inaccurate” by Akaka bill supporters.

Supporters of the bill, which include the Democratic members of Hawaii’s congressional delegation and Republican governor Linda Lingle, counter that Hawaii is a unique case because of its former history as an independent nation before the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893.

Kyl had placed a block on the bill when it was originally placed on the Senate schedule in July 2005, but has since agreed to allow the bill to come to a floor vote. The bill was later deferred indefinitely due in part to Hurricane Katrina.

Learn About The Parasailing Launch Bar System

by

Joy Smit

First things first, the parasailing launch bar system is actually made from stainless steel. Basically, this system enables and ensures riders to be able to launch the boat’s parasail. The fact of the matter is that parasailing enables anyone to soar like a bird and be in contact with the clouds.

Why use the parasailing launch bar system?

YouTube Preview Image

Parasailing require a boat that has a horsepower of ninety. To be able to fly, the parasail needs a canopy, towline, body harness. Of course, there must also be wind which has a speed of twelve meters per hour to twenty seven meters per hour.

There are canopies that are particularly made in order to help facilitate a lift that is far above the ground. Canopies also help resist drags. There are canopies that are made specifically to enable them to lift high up with the wind and resist drags. These drags are also called high drag and low lift drag.

Chutes such as these are inflated quite easily on various winch boats with the help of the very innovative parasailing launch bar system. Many parasails are currently available with a height of twenty four feet up to more than forty feet. Parasails have various capacities.

There are parasails that are especially made for single parasail flyers while there are parasails that are made specifically for two flyers and even three. The condition of the wind also determines the parasail type that will be used. But, a high lift drag low lift drag canopy is specially designed in order to weather any wind, thereby resulting in frequently less change in chutes.

The tripleizer launch bar system

There are actually manufacturers who take the joy and fun of parasailing so seriously that they have created a launch bar system wherein three people can fit on each side in comfort and convenience.

The tripleizer parasailing launch bar system was debuted in the year 1998. In the state of Florida for one, four operators are currently running this particular parasailing launch bar system along with the super heavy drag lift and low lift drag parasails. Add to this is another innovation which enables operators to fly five customers in just one flight thanks to a double tow ring yoke.

All in all, a parasailing launch bar system has enabled parasailing operators to offer one of a kind adventure and fun to families and parasail flyers thanks to the very useful launch bar system. Families and individuals are taking advantage of this system to enable them to soar and touch the sky, literally.

Want to find out about

how to bowl

and

bowling lane

? Get tips from the

The Bowling Coach

website.

Article Source:

Learn About The Parasailing Launch Bar System

}

" href="http://www.2buyshoes.com/reflections-lichtenstein-two-new-exhibitions-at-edinburghs-modern-one/" rel="bookmark">
Reflections, Lichtenstein, two new exhibitions at Edinburgh’s Modern One

Saturday, March 14, 2015

This weekend saw the opening of two new exhibitions at Edinburgh’s National Gallery of Modern Art. Wikinews attended Thursday’s press preview for the event where a full contingent of the capital’s press turned out to see the striking collection of paintings, photographs, and other works. Presented below are a selection of images captured at the preview.

REFLECTIONS: A Series of Changing Displays of Contemporary Art, billed as a showcase of a “diverse range of internationally-renowned contemporary and modern artists” is to display major works from the Gallery’s permanent collection, alongside important loans. Alongside this broad range of works, a three-room display of pieces on-loan from the Roy Lichtenstein Foundation — with a dramatic painted steel relief, ‘borrowed’ from the Tate in London — runs from March 14 through to January 10 next year.

Admission to both exhibitions is free; being located in Dean, to the north-west of Edinburgh’s city centre, a free Gallery bus service is available.

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9
  • 10
  • 11
  • 12
  • 13
  • 14
  • 15
  • 16
  • 17
  • 18
  • 19
  • 20
  • 21
  • 22
  • 23
  • 24
  • 25
  • 26

Steelers defeat Lions to advance to NFL playoffs

" href="http://www.2buyshoes.com/steelers-defeat-lions-to-advance-to-nfl-playoffs/" rel="bookmark">
Steelers defeat Lions to advance to NFL playoffs
Author: 5LTck8

1 Dec

Monday, January 2, 2006

The Pittsbugh Steelers defeated the Detroit Lions 35-21 at Heinz Field in Pittsburgh. The victory earns the Steelers the final spot for an AFC team in the NFL playoffs.

The Steelers, who had a 10-5 record heading into the game, were strong favorites against the Lions, who were 5-10. Pittsburgh took an early lead on an 81 yard Antwaan Randle El punt return less than two minutes into the game. However, the Lions fought back, with quarterback Joey Harrington throwing scoring passes on two consecutive drives in the first quarter to put Detroit up 14-7.

Veteran Steelers running back Jerome Bettis scored the next three touchdowns, matching a career high. His third touchdown resulted in a standing ovation from the crowd of 63,794. This will likely be the last home game for Bettis, as he is expected to retire at the end of this season.

The Steelers (11-5) go on to play the Bengals (11-5) in Cincinnati next Sunday at 4:00pm in the wildcard round. The Steelers split their season series with the Bengals winning 27-13 on October 23 in Cincinnati, but losing 38-31 at home on December 4.

“We play [the Bengals] twice a year and we know them,” said Steelers receiver Hines Ward. “It’s not going to be easy, but we’re more comfortable with them.”

The other AFC wildcard game has the Jacksonville Jaguars (12-4) visiting the New England Patroits (10-6). The winners of the wild card round will face the Indianapolis Colts (14-2) or the Denver Broncos (13-3) in the divisonal round.

May Day march takes place in London

" href="http://www.2buyshoes.com/may-day-march-takes-place-in-london-3/" rel="bookmark">
May Day march takes place in London
Author: 5LTck8

1 Dec

Monday, May 1, 2006

Workers and trade union members have taken part in the traditional May Day march in London, ending in a rally at Trafalger Square. TUC leader Brendan Barber addressed the crowd, praising the labour movement and expressing solidarity with the workers of the Peugeot manufacturing plant in Coventry, who face redundancy.

An estimated 40,000 people took part.

Choosing A Refractive Surgeon: Do Your Research}

Choosing a Refractive Surgeon: Do Your Research

by

Tyrie Jenkins, M.D.

The key to safe, successful surgery in any field of medicine is an informed patient with realistic expectations and a skilled, experienced surgeon. This goes double for your eyes. Take the time to research not only the procedure, but also the surgeon and the laser center you are considering. Ask questions. Do your research. And don’t let cost be your deciding factor-we’re talking about your eyes.

How to find a surgeon

Word-of-mouth is a good indicator. Begin with the people you know-family, friends and associates, an optometrist or ophthalmologist you trust. Look for a refractive surgeon you feel has your best interests at heart.

Physician Search Directories on the Internet may be helpful, but are limited to those who chose to participate. Checking the surgeon’s credentials is your job. Many surgeons have their own website detailing their practice along with qualifications and experience. Ask for the surgeon’s web address.

LASIK surgery is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. These days many surgeons and laser centers advertise. Beware of the hard sell and discounters! Discount surgery is as good as a discount parachute. Go for a well-qualified surgeon and pay what it costs.

Experience and results

Studies show surgeons with more experience have the fewer complications. Does the surgeon feel confident enough with the procedure to have done family members? Find out how much experience your surgeon has with the procedure-the more the better.

Ask how the surgeon is tracking surgical results. Surgeons should be able to cite specific numbers and outcomes for vision problems similar to yours. Benchmarking shows the surgeon’s concern for achieving the best possible results.

Success, complication rates

Discuss the success rates and complication rates for your individual surgery. Surgical success means not only knowing how to avoid complications, but also how to handle difficult situations before they occur. Beware of the surgeon who claims never to have had a complication. He/she has done very few procedures or is not being truthful. What’s important is that the surgeon has a low complication rate and the ultimate visual outcomes are good.

Certifications, awards, malpractice suits

Look for a surgeon certified by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Participation in research, lecturing and writing professional articles or books also indicate a level of respect by the surgeon’s peers. See if your surgeon has been recognized with any awards.

Check to see if a surgeon has had multiple malpractice suits. Even the best doctor may have had a lawsuit against him or her, but multiple lawsuits require an explanation.

New technologies

Refractive surgery is a dynamic field. Your doctors should be keeping up! It pays to get a sense of your surgeon’s thirst for knowledge and advancing technologies.

If your procedure is being performed in the United States, make sure it is done only on an FDA-approved excimer laser. Ask about the latest laser upgrades. Remember surgeons in other countries may use lasers that have not had to withstand FDA scrutiny.

Care provider & staff

Some patients choose to see their family eye care specialist for their preoperative and postoperative care. If this is the case, make sure that your surgeon is accessible to you at any time during your preoperative and postoperative period. The doctor’s staff should also feel comfortable and confident with the entire procedure. Competence and compassion go a long way.

Personal compatibility

Personal chemistry can make a difference in your experience with any type of surgery. Choose a surgeon with whom you feel comfortable. That person should be easy to talk to, yet professional. Most importantly, your surgeon should listen closely to what you want and be willing to take the time necessary for you to understand the procedure and devise a treatment plan that best suits your needs.

Take your time

You have probably worn glasses or contacts for most of your life. There is no rush to decide who will do your refractive procedure. Take your time and ask whatever questions you need to feel comfortable with your choice. Laser refractive surgery has improved the eyesight of more than a million people in the United States and nearly the same number throughout the world. Most refractive surgery patients report that having laser surgery is the best decision they have ever made. Your refractive surgeon need not be your best friend, but you should have the confidence that he or she has the skills and experience to perform the procedure.

Dr. Tyrie Lee Jenkins, an accomplished ophthalmologist and eye surgeon, provides quality eye care to patients of all ages. She has built both her ophthalmology practice and her community service around the same principlecompassionate care. She has been involved with laser vision correction since its infancy, and performed Hawaiis first LASIK (Laser in situ Keratomileusis) procedure in 1997. For more information, visit

pathwaytovision.com

Article Source:

Choosing a Refractive Surgeon: Do Your Research
}

Cleveland, Ohio clinic performs US’s first face transplant

" href="http://www.2buyshoes.com/cleveland-ohio-clinic-performs-uss-first-face-transplant/" rel="bookmark">
Cleveland, Ohio clinic performs US’s first face transplant
Author: 5LTck8

30 Nov

Thursday, December 18, 2008

A team of eight transplant surgeons in Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, USA, led by reconstructive surgeon Dr. Maria Siemionow, age 58, have successfully performed the first almost total face transplant in the US, and the fourth globally, on a woman so horribly disfigured due to trauma, that cost her an eye. Two weeks ago Dr. Siemionow, in a 23-hour marathon surgery, replaced 80 percent of her face, by transplanting or grafting bone, nerve, blood vessels, muscles and skin harvested from a female donor’s cadaver.

The Clinic surgeons, in Wednesday’s news conference, described the details of the transplant but upon request, the team did not publish her name, age and cause of injury nor the donor’s identity. The patient’s family desired the reason for her transplant to remain confidential. The Los Angeles Times reported that the patient “had no upper jaw, nose, cheeks or lower eyelids and was unable to eat, talk, smile, smell or breathe on her own.” The clinic’s dermatology and plastic surgery chair, Francis Papay, described the nine hours phase of the procedure: “We transferred the skin, all the facial muscles in the upper face and mid-face, the upper lip, all of the nose, most of the sinuses around the nose, the upper jaw including the teeth, the facial nerve.” Thereafter, another team spent three hours sewing the woman’s blood vessels to that of the donor’s face to restore blood circulation, making the graft a success.

The New York Times reported that “three partial face transplants have been performed since 2005, two in France and one in China, all using facial tissue from a dead donor with permission from their families.” “Only the forehead, upper eyelids, lower lip, lower teeth and jaw are hers, the rest of her face comes from a cadaver; she could not eat on her own or breathe without a hole in her windpipe. About 77 square inches of tissue were transplanted from the donor,” it further described the details of the medical marvel. The patient, however, must take lifetime immunosuppressive drugs, also called antirejection drugs, which do not guarantee success. The transplant team said that in case of failure, it would replace the part with a skin graft taken from her own body.

Dr. Bohdan Pomahac, a Brigham and Women’s Hospital surgeon praised the recent medical development. “There are patients who can benefit tremendously from this. It’s great that it happened,” he said.

Leading bioethicist Arthur Caplan of the University of Pennsylvania withheld judgment on the Cleveland transplant amid grave concerns on the post-operation results. “The biggest ethical problem is dealing with failure — if your face rejects. It would be a living hell. If your face is falling off and you can’t eat and you can’t breathe and you’re suffering in a terrible manner that can’t be reversed, you need to put on the table assistance in dying. There are patients who can benefit tremendously from this. It’s great that it happened,” he said.

Dr Alex Clarke, of the Royal Free Hospital had praised the Clinic for its contribution to medicine. “It is a real step forward for people who have severe disfigurement and this operation has been done by a team who have really prepared and worked towards this for a number of years. These transplants have proven that the technical difficulties can be overcome and psychologically the patients are doing well. They have all have reacted positively and have begun to do things they were not able to before. All the things people thought were barriers to this kind of operations have been overcome,” she said.

The first partial face transplant surgery on a living human was performed on Isabelle Dinoire on November 27 2005, when she was 38, by Professor Bernard Devauchelle, assisted by Professor Jean-Michel Dubernard in Amiens, France. Her Labrador dog mauled her in May 2005. A triangle of face tissue including the nose and mouth was taken from a brain-dead female donor and grafted onto the patient. Scientists elsewhere have performed scalp and ear transplants. However, the claim is the first for a mouth and nose transplant. Experts say the mouth and nose are the most difficult parts of the face to transplant.

In 2004, the same Cleveland Clinic, became the first institution to approve this surgery and test it on cadavers. In October 2006, surgeon Peter Butler at London‘s Royal Free Hospital in the UK was given permission by the NHS ethics board to carry out a full face transplant. His team will select four adult patients (children cannot be selected due to concerns over consent), with operations being carried out at six month intervals. In March 2008, the treatment of 30-year-old neurofibromatosis victim Pascal Coler of France ended after having received what his doctors call the worlds first successful full face transplant.

Ethical concerns, psychological impact, problems relating to immunosuppression and consequences of technical failure have prevented teams from performing face transplant operations in the past, even though it has been technically possible to carry out such procedures for years.

Mr Iain Hutchison, of Barts and the London Hospital, warned of several problems with face transplants, such as blood vessels in the donated tissue clotting and immunosuppressants failing or increasing the patient’s risk of cancer. He also pointed out ethical issues with the fact that the procedure requires a “beating heart donor”. The transplant is carried out while the donor is brain dead, but still alive by use of a ventilator.

According to Stephen Wigmore, chair of British Transplantation Society’s ethics committee, it is unknown to what extent facial expressions will function in the long term. He said that it is not certain whether a patient could be left worse off in the case of a face transplant failing.

Mr Michael Earley, a member of the Royal College of Surgeon‘s facial transplantation working party, commented that if successful, the transplant would be “a major breakthrough in facial reconstruction” and “a major step forward for the facially disfigured.”

In Wednesday’s conference, Siemionow said “we know that there are so many patients there in their homes where they are hiding from society because they are afraid to walk to the grocery stores, they are afraid to go the the street.” “Our patient was called names and was humiliated. We very much hope that for this very special group of patients there is a hope that someday they will be able to go comfortably from their houses and enjoy the things we take for granted,” she added.

In response to the medical breakthrough, a British medical group led by Royal Free Hospital’s lead surgeon Dr Peter Butler, said they will finish the world’s first full face transplant within a year. “We hope to make an announcement about a full-face operation in the next 12 months. This latest operation shows how facial transplantation can help a particular group of the most severely facially injured people. These are people who would otherwise live a terrible twilight life, shut away from public gaze,” he said.